- 1) EPDM rubber (ethylene propylene diene monomer rubber) :
is a type of synthetic rubber, which can be used in a wide range of applications. This is an M-Class rubber where the 'M' in M-Class refers to its classification in ASTM standard D-1418; the M class comprises elastomers having a saturated chain of the polyethylene type (the M deriving from the more correct term polymethylene). EPDM is made from ethylene, propylene and a diene comonomer that enables crosslinking via sulphur vulcanisation systems. The earlier relative of EPDM is EPR, ethylene-propylene rubber, that contains no diene units and can only be crosslinked using radical methods such as peroxides. Dienes used in the manufacture of EPDM rubbers are ethylidene norbornene (ENB), dicyclopentadiene (DCPD), and vinyl norbornene (VNB).
- 2) Geotextiles : Geotextiles are permeable fabrics which, when used in association with soil, have the ability to separate, filter, reinforce, protect, or drain. Typically made from polypropylene or polyester. Geotextiles and related products have many applications and currently support many civil Constructions applications including roads,airfields,railroads,embankments,retaining structures,reservoirs,canals,dams,bank protection,coastal Constructions
- 3) Geogrids : Geogrids are commonly made of polymer materials, such as polyester, polyvinyl alcohol, polyethylene orpolypropylene. A geogrid is geosynthetic material used to reinforce soils and similar materials. Geogrids are commonly used to reinforce retaining walls, as well as subbases or subsoils below roads or structures. Soils pull apart under tension. Compared to soil, geogrids are strong in tension.
- 4) Geocomposites : The basic philosophy behind geocomposite materials is to combine the best features of different materials in such a way that specific applications are addressed in the optimal manner and at minimum cost. Thus, the benefit/cost ratio is maximized. Such geocomposites will generally be geosynthetic materials, but not always. In some cases it may be more advantageous to use a nonsynthetic material with a geosynthetic one for optimum performance and/or least cost
- 5) Geomembranes : A geomembrane is very low permeability synthetic membrane liner or barrier used with any geotechnical Constructions related material so as to control fluid (or gas) migration in a human-made project, structure, or system. Geomembranes are made from relatively thin continuous polymeric sheets
- 6) Geocells : GEOCELL is a 3D cellular confinement system. GEOCELL is expanded on-site to form a honeycomb-like structure which can be filled with sand, soil or other site material. This cost effective solution has multiple applications like soil stabilization, retaining walls, slope protection, erosion control etc enabling reduced projects costs and lower environmental impact.
- 7) Geosynthetic clay liners : Geosynthetic clay liners consisting of a layer of bentonite or other very low-permeability material supported by geotextiles and/or geomembranes, mechanically held together by needling, stitching, or chemical adhesives. Due to environmental laws, any seepage from landfills must be collected and properly disposed off, otherwise contamination of the surrounding ground water could cause major environmental and/or ecological problems. The lower the hydraulic conductivity the more effective the GCL will be at retaining seepage inside of the landfill. Bentonite composed predominantly (>70%) of montmorillonite or other expansive clays, are preferred and most commonly used in GCLs. A general GCL construction would consist of two layers ofgeosynthetics stitched together enclosing a layer of natural or processed sodium bentonite. Typically, woven and/or non-woven textile geosynthetics are used, however polyethylene or geomembrane layers or geogrid geotextilesmaterials have also been incorporated into the design or in place of a textile layer to increase strength.
- 8) Erosion control mat : Erosion Control Products are some of the strongest and longest lasting erosion control products on the market today. Also known asErosion Control Blankets , coir mats are designed to increase soil stabilization, decrease the effects of erosion, and allow vegetation to effectively take root. Coir mats are made from a natural and 100% biodegradable coconut fiber. control mats are the perfect option for environmentally sensitive areas, steep slopes, or climates where shade or cold temperatures increase seed germination time.
- 9) Gabions : A gabion is a cage,cylinder, or box filled with rocks, concrete, or sometimes sand and soil for use in civil Constructions, road building, military applications and landscaping.For erosion control, caged riprap is used. For dams or in foundation construction, cylindrical metal structures are used. A gabion wall is a retaining wall made of stacked stone-filled gabions tied together with wire. Gabion walls are usuallybattered (angled back towards the slope), or stepped back with the slope, rather than stacked vertically.The life expectancy of gabions depends on the lifespan of the wire, not on the contents of the basket. The structure will fail when the wire fails. Galvanized steel wire is most common, but PVC-coated and stainless steel wire are also used.